The Spark Gap - Toward Overunity?


Hermes Atar Trismegistus

Between 1897 and 1901 John Sealy Edward Townsend discovered the process of Free Energy, were free electrons are accelerated in an electric field between two electrodes. As the electrons are accelerating they are ionising more atoms that liberates more electrons that are moving toward the anode (the positive (+)). The ionized atom moves toward the catode (the negative (-)).This is known as the Electron avalanche also known as Townsend discharge.

Townsend Avalanche

Mark McKay has additional information about the Spark Gap and Free Energy:

Your discussion of Townsend Avalanche theory as it relates to the Gray Technology is missing two important aspects. The spark gap that is responsible for the anomalous energy is exposed to large opposing magnetic fields as the distance between the electrodes quickly increases. This was not the case in the CSET device and that is not were the overunity was generated. The Bloch Wall of the magnetic interface appears to have been located right in the middle of the arc plasma. This is a very complex situation to analyze much less duplicate.

While the creation of additional free electrons is a well studied Townsend process the overall impact of this operation is very much associated with the parameters of the power supply as well. With more current carriers injected into the gap the effective resistance drops - thus the negative resistance phenomena appears. What is generally over looked is that this process doesn’t continue forever. It is limited by the availability of untouched air atoms to which can be ionized. When the local supply of these atoms is exhausted the process returns to the physics of a steady arc. In the Gray system that doesn’t happen because we are talking about a short duration event less than 10 milliseconds.

The overall response of the system depends upon having a constant voltage supply or a constant current supply. Most people use a classical discharge capacitor which is neither constant voltage nor constant current, thus the effects they are looking for do not materialize.

Dr. Tesla specifically said in 1892 he used a constant current supply (HV generator) in his original experiments to explore the beginnings of "Radiant energy".

Smokey has some theoretical design of the Ron Cole Impulse Discharge and the Chernetsky Self Generating Discharge.


Self Generating Discharge

In 1973 Edwin V. Gray became famous as the inventor of the Free Energy motor called EMA that he recieved a patent for in June 17, 1975 USP 3,890,548 in which he disclose a high voltage sparkgap engine (3000 Volts). The mechanical output was 275 times the electrical input! and in April 10, 1980 his regenerative energy recovery system e. g. for electromagnetic propulation was published as a UK patent application GBPA 2,030,801

Norman Wootan Free Energy The History of The E V Gray Motor 2001

Peter Lindemann The World of Free Energy 2001

Eleven years later on June 17, 1986 . Gray recieved US Patent USP 4,595,975 on a battery powered powersource which output 4 times more energy than the energy contained in the battery.

Tesla's disruptive transformer with magnetic horn gap produced the silver white aetheric fire via unidirectional DC pulses. Tesla even specified the rest period of the firing pulses of .0062 millisecond. The conversion tube worked the same way!

New Tesla’s Spark Gaps: A Literature Review

Almost one year later on April 28, 1987. Gray recieves US Patent USP 4,661,747 for his conversation tube.

Edwin V. Gray died of an heart attack in mysterious circumstances 1989, and with him died the technology.

Mark McKay, who have interviewed Gray's children and other people dealing with the technology has made a timeline about Edwin V. Gray and is avaible here in both gray.doc or gray.odt and more information about the Edwin V. Gray engine is avaible here: grayengine.doc or grayengine.odt. Credits about the life of Edwin V. Gray can be found here: credits.doc or credits.odt. Here is some ideas about the wiring of the EMA motor: delta.doc or delta.odt. For more ideas how the EMA worked: stretched.doc or stretched.odt. An Electrostatic Energy Harvest Method electrostatic.doc or electrostatic.odt. The Phinney Trigger Circuit phinney.doc or phinney.odt. Converter Switching Element Tube cset.doc or cset.odt. Mysteries of the Timing & Control Commutators timming.doc or timming.odt. A Heuristic for the Detection of Radiant Energy detection.doc or detection.odt. A Heuristic for the Creation of Radiant Energy creation.doc or creation.odt. Supporting Classical Technologies supporting.doc or supporting.odt. The Mark W. Gray Interview - 2007 mark.doc or mark.odt. Interview with Dowd R. Cannady, an E. V. Gray Observer cannady.doc or cannady.odt. Edwin Vincent Gray, Sr. & Family: Time-Line james.doc or james.odt. The Mallory Connection mallory.doc or mallory.odt. The Crosby Research Foundation crosby.doc or crosby.odt. The Crosby letter crosby.PDF

Mark McKay has the following information to share about the Edwin V. Gray technology:

1. The overall efficiency output of Gray Technology at its state of development in 1973 was established to be 282 times the energy input (Coefficient of Performance = COP). This was evaluated by two PhD. EE with extensive backgrounds in power supplies. These tests were conducted for 10 days at Cal-Tech, CA using the best instrumentation available.

2. The 6,000Hz device (Electrostatic Generator) was a failure. It was a transistor version designed and built by Richard Hackenberger. It was designed to replace the original Ron Cole device that employed a spark gap and mechanical vibrator. At best it was advertised to have a COP of 4.0, but this was never tested by a 3rd party laboratory. The original Cole "Black Box" operated at 100 Hz.

3. The circuit you describe is from the 1986 patent for the "Converter Switching Element Tube". It is a custom device intended to control the anomalous "Cold Electricity", it was not the source of that energy. This author believes that the actual converter circuit was hidden in component #16 shown in your schematic as a capacitor. Even so, these CSET devices were removed from the Free energy engine EMA6 in April of 1976. It is thought that they failed to operate at higher energy levels. However, three capacitors( #16) remained with the engine.

4. None of the theory of operation you have in your report has been validated. In fact much of it has been disproved in actual tests. The real heart of this technology is still open for debate or experimentation.

In the early 1970's but in the Sovietunion Alexander V. Chernetsky and his friend Yuri Galkin expremented with a basically new type of a high frequency, high current electrical generator. It gave out almost 5 times more electrical energy than you put in.

New Alexander V. Chernetsky died in a car accident in early 1990's and the secret of the Chernetsky Plasma Generator died with him.

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