The Spark Gap - Toward Overunity?
Hermes Atar Trismegistus
Between 1897 and 1901
John Sealy Edward Townsend
discovered the process of Free Energy, were free electrons are accelerated in an electric field
between two electrodes. As the electrons are accelerating they are ionising more atoms that liberates
more electrons that are moving toward the anode (the positive (+)). The ionized atom moves toward
the catode (the negative (-)).This is known as the
also known as Townsend discharge.
Mark McKay has additional information about the Spark Gap and Free Energy:
Your discussion of Townsend Avalanche theory as it relates to the Gray Technology is missing
two important aspects. The spark gap that is responsible for the anomalous energy is exposed to large
opposing magnetic fields as the distance between the electrodes quickly increases. This was not the case
in the CSET device and that is not were the overunity was generated. The Bloch Wall of the magnetic
interface appears to have been located right in the middle of the arc plasma. This is a very complex
situation to analyze much less duplicate.
While the creation of additional free electrons is a well studied Townsend process the overall impact of this
operation is very much associated with the parameters of the power supply as well. With more current
carriers injected into the gap the effective resistance drops - thus the negative resistance phenomena
appears. What is generally over looked is that this process doesn’t continue forever. It is limited by the
availability of untouched air atoms to which can be ionized. When the local supply of these atoms is
exhausted the process returns to the physics of a steady arc. In the Gray system that doesn’t happen
because we are talking about a short duration event less than 10 milliseconds.
The overall response of the system depends upon having a constant voltage supply or a constant current
supply. Most people use a classical discharge capacitor which is neither constant voltage nor constant
current, thus the effects they are looking for do not materialize.
Dr. Tesla specifically said in 1892 he used a constant current supply (HV generator) in his original
experiments to explore the beginnings of "Radiant energy".
Smokey has some theoretical design of the Ron Cole Impulse Discharge and
the Chernetsky Self Generating Discharge.
In 1973 Edwin V. Gray became famous as the inventor of the
Free Energy motor called EMA that he recieved a patent for in June 17 1975
US Patent 3,890,548 in which he disclose a high voltage
sparkgap engine (3000 Volts).
The mechanical output was 275 times the electrical input!
USP 3,890,548 page 1
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USP 3,890,548 page 3
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USP 3,890,548 page 17
USP 3,890,548 page 18
Eleven years later on June 17, 1986 . Gray recieved US Patent 4,595,755 on a
batterypowered powersource which output 4 times more energy than the energy contained in the battery.
USP 4,595,755 page 1
USP 4,595,755 page 2
USP 4,595,755 page 3
USP 4,595,755 page 4
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USP 4,595,755 page 7
Almost one year later on April 28, 1987. Gray recieves US Patent 4,661,747 for
his conversation tube.
USP 4,661,747 page 1
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USP 4,661,747 page 3
USP 4,661,747 page 4
USP 4,661,747 page 5
USP 4,661,747 page 6
USP 4,661,747 page 7
Edwin V. Gray died of an heart attack in mysterious circumstances 1989,
and with him died the technology.
Mark McKay, who have interviewed Gray's children
and other people dealing with the technology has made a timeline about Edwin V. Gray and is
avaible here in both gray.doc or
gray.odt and more information about the
Edwin V. Gray engine is avaible here: grayengine.doc
or grayengine.odt. Credits about the life of
Edwin V. Gray can be found here: credits.doc
or credits.odt. Here is some ideas about the
wiring of the EMA motor: delta.doc
or delta.odt. For more ideas how the EMA worked:
or stretched.odt. An Electrostatic Energy Harvest
or electrostatic.odt. The Phinney Trigger Circuit
or phinney.odt. Converter Switching Element Tube
or cset.odt. Mysteries of the Timing & Control
or timming.odt. A Heuristic for the Detection of
Radiant Energy detection.doc
or detection.odt. A Heuristic for the Creation of
Radiant Energy creation.doc
or creation.odt. Supporting Classical Technologies
or supporting.odt. The Mark W. Gray Interview
- 2007 mark.doc
or mark.odt. Interview with Dowd R. Cannady,
an E. V. Gray Observer cannady.doc
or cannady.odt. Edwin Vincent Gray, Sr. &
Family: Time-Line james.doc
or james.odt. The Mallory Connection
or mallory.odt. The Crosby Research Foundation
or crosby.odt. The Crosby letter
Mark McKay has the following information to share about the Edwin V. Gray technology:
1. The overall efficiency output of Gray Technology at its state of development in 1973 was established
to be 282 times the energy input (Coefficient of Performance = COP). This was evaluated by two
PhD. EE with extensive backgrounds in power supplies. These tests were conducted for 10 days at
Cal-Tech, CA using the best instrumentation available.
2. The 6,000Hz device (Electrostatic Generator) was a failure. It was a transistor version designed and
built by Richard Hackenberger. It was designed to replace the original Ron Cole device that employed
a spark gap and mechanical vibrator. At best it was advertised to have a COP of 4.0, but this was never
tested by a 3rd party laboratory. The original Cole "Black Box" operated at 100 Hz.
3. The circuit you describe is from the 1986 patent for the "Converter Switching Element Tube".
It is a custom device intended to control the anomalous "Cold Electricity", it was not the source of that
energy. This author believes that the actual converter circuit was hidden in component #16 shown in
your schematic as a capacitor. Even so, these CSET devices were removed from the Free energy engine
EMA6 in April of 1976. It is thought that they failed to operate at higher energy levels.
However, three capacitors( #16) remained with the engine.
4. None of the theory of operation you have in your report has been validated. In fact much of it has been
disproved in actual tests. The real heart of this technology is still open for debate or experimentation.
In the early 1970's but in the Sovietunion
Chernetsky and his friend
Yuri Galkin expremented with a basically new type of a high frequency, high current electrical generator.
It gave out almost 5 times more electrical energy than you put in.
Alexander V. Chernetsky
died in a car accident in early 1990's and the secret of the Chernetsky
Plasma Generator died with him.
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